Aegean Turkey - 2008 - Part 1

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Early morning at our first hotel in Bergama, modern Pergamum Allianoi - this little visited site is soon to be inundated by the waters of a new reservoir Hot springs in Allianoi made this a cult centre despite its distance from Pergamum.  These baths are Roman
and were built in the 2nd century AD.  Local people still used the hot springs until the 1990s. Emergency excavation has been undertaken to learn as much as possible about Allianoi before it is lost During the Byzantine period there was much building on the site, but the baths remained little changed
Bergama Allianoi Allianoi Allianoi Allianoi
The Acropolis of Pergamum as seen from the lower location of the Asclepieum.  The site of the theatre on the
hillside is dramatic The colonnaded Via Tecta was the sacred way leading from Pergamum to the entrance of the Asclepieum through..... ....the Monumental Gateway.  This marked the boundary of the complex - no births or deaths were allowed inside Demir shows us one of the mud baths or plunge pools of the complex.  There were lots of frogs in residence! The Theatre and North Stoa of the courtyard of the Asclepieum.  In the foreground is the entrance to the tunnel
leading from the courtyard to the treatment area or Temple of Telesphorus
Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum
The Theatre held 3,500 people and gives a good view of the courtyard of the complex The Temple of Trajan is on the highest terrace of the Acropolis of Pergamum It is partly cut into the hillside and partly supported on arches The columns are 9.8 metres high.  Excavation and reconstruction at Pergamum has been undertaken by German
archaeologists.  Many of the artefacts found are now in Berlin The Temple of Trajan viewed from a lower terrace.  The vaults supporting the temple can be clearly seen
Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum
The Theatre at Pergamum is the steepest of all the ancient sites.  The view is wonderful Spectators needed a good head for heights and so do visitors today! The theatre was fitted into the existing contours of the hillside.  It was not possible to have a full semi-circle for
the auditorium, so the builders compensated by creating 80 rows of steeply raked seats The theatre could hold 10,000 people Demir tells us about the Temple of Dionysus which unusually faces south
Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum
A well preserved mosaic floor in one of the wealthy homes on the lower terraces The masks suggest that the room may have had a theatrical use Looking down on the Upper Gymnasium in the middle part of the city
Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum
Stone shot collected from all over the site is stored here.  This shot would have been used as part of the defence
of the city. The Red Basilica or Kizil Avlu was built in the 2nd century AD, probably as a Temple to Serapis, an Egyptian
god popular at that time It became a Christian basilica in the Byzantine period and is purported to be one of the seven churches addressed
by St John in the Book of Revelation The River Selinus runs underneath the Basilica through two Roman tunnels built for this purpose The rotunda on the right hand side is now a mosque
Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum Pergamum
The Roman bridge over the river is still in use as a footbridge Phokaia - Tas Kule is a tomb carved from an outcrop of limestone rock.  Its date is uncertain, but possibly 4th
century BC.  It is unlike other burials of the region and is thought to be Persian in origin The tomb has been restored and is perhaps too perfect.  This entrance at the front is false The real entrance is at the side, but the tomb is empty Magnesia ad Sipylum - this is a Hittite carving of the Mother Goddess.  It is very weathered and not easy
to photograph!
Pergamum Phokaia Phokaia Phokaia Magnesia ad Sipylum
Barbara and Terry do sterling work preparing our picnic.  Esme looks on Everyone tucks in It was a good meal This Hittite carving guards the Karabel Pass. The rain has made it difficult to see clearly This photograph taken on a previous visit is much clearer
Magnesia ad Sipylum Magnesia ad Sipylum Magnesia ad Sipylum The Karabel Pass The Karabel Pass
Metropolis, meaning City of the Mother Goddess, is a little known site which was not excavated until the late
1980s.  It occupied a strategic position between Smyrna and Ephesus This is the Bouleuterion which has been divided in two by a rubble wall belonging to the much later Byzantine
Fortress Demir points to the base of a statue which has been used in the building of this wall On the other side of the wall, he points to the shoulders of the same statue! Wendy, Cathy, Katy and Ian try out the public latrines of the city
Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis
The Theatre of Metropolis is well preserved with three round altars in the orchestra which were erected in honour
of the Emperor Augustus These are in very good condition ... are the ceremonial seats for distinguished guests The theatre would have held about 4,000 people and offered a spectacular view over the valley below The upper levels of seating are lost and the auditorium is considerably smaller now
Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis Metropolis
Kusadasi - the view from our hotel room in the early morning We looked for our own boats in the marina.  Wendy found hers! Kusadasi Juliette and Wendy enjoy an aperitif on the balcony before dinner Kusadasi at night
Kusadasi Kusadasi Kusadasi Kusadasi Kusadasi
The Temple of Artemis - little remains of the sanctuary which was burnt down in the 3rd century BC. The rebuilt temple was one of the largest in the Greek world and was considered one of the Seven Wonders of
the Ancient World.  Much of the stonework can be found in buildings in the surrounding area
This model in Ephesus Museum gives an idea of its size and grandeur A view of the fortress on Ayasoluk Hill and of the Isa Bey Mosque in Selcuk The courtyard of the Isa Bey Mosque.  The columns are from the Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis, Selcuk Temple of Artemis, Selcuk Temple of Artemis, Selcuk Selcuk Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk
The minaret is in need of restoration and lacks its upper level More pillars from the Temple of Artemis are built into the prayer hall of the mosque The mihrab of the mosque Decorative stonework from the Temple of Artemis in one of the walls of the courtyard of the Isa Bey Mosque Juliette sits on the steps in which are found more pieces of robbed stonework with Greek inscriptions
Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk Isa Bey Mosque, Selcuk
Ephesus Museum - these statues were from the pediment of the Temple of Isis in Ephesus and tell the story of
Odysseus and Polyphemus Ephesus Museum - the Ephesian Artemis dates from approx 125 - 175 AD Another version of the Ephesian Artemis A fine bust of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius found in a private house in Ephesus Ephesus - view across the State Agora to the Bouleuterion of the city with the remains of the Temple of Isis in
the foreground
Ephesus Museum, Selcuk Ephesus Museum Ephesus Museum Ephesus Museum Ephesus
The Bouleuterion and the State Agora One of the side streets off the State Agora with the Temple of Domitian on the left The Gate of Hercules  - built towards the end of the 4th century AD.  The pillars narrow the street so that wheeled
vehicles cannot get through Curetes Street looking down towards the Library of Celsus Juliette and Wendy pose in front of the Fountain of Trajan
Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus
A fine mosaic which is sited in the 5th century AD colonnade of Curetes Street Looking back up a very quiet Curetes Street - the covered remains of private houses on the right The Library of Celsus This marble street leads to the theatre and the Commercial Agora of Ephesus The Theatre of Ephesus - St Paul spoke from here complaining that images of Artemis made by local craftsmen
were false gods.  The angry crowd replied
Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus
The Arcadian way leading to the harbour of Ephesus.  The street was 600 metres long and lined with shops It had colonnades and lamps to light it at night One of the traders in the car park at Ephesus The Gymnasium of Vedius - this area is not open to the general public, but Demir arranged for us to visit The gymnasium had a bath complex.  This is one of the pools
Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus
Another of the rooms of the bath complex The Gymnasium of Vedius This is the stadium.  Seating on the left was supported by vaults and on the right made use of the natural hillside Demir blows on a lighted fennel stem to make it glow.  In Greek mythology Prometheus stole fire from the sun
using a hollow fennel stem Greek islanders still carry fire around using lighted fennel stems.  Demir was pleased to show us how the stem,
once lit, will continue to burn slowly and not go out
Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus Ephesus
A visit to a carpet factory where we were shown how carpets are made This young girl has plasters on her fingers - apparently she was new to the work Silk cocoons are put in hot water and unwound to give the desired number of strands for the type of carpet required The sales room.  It was a fine performance and several rugs were sold We have a barbecue in the olive fields belonging to some friends of Demir
Carpet making Carpet making Carpet making Carpet making Barbecue
There was a cheerful blaze to warm us on the chill evening This old olive oil press is still used by the family for their personal needs The food was delicious and the company convivial The interior of the family's retreat in the olive grove
Barbecue Barbecue Barbecue Barbecue Barbecue
The fireplace used for cooking and heating water We sat round another blazing fire and sang songs - not very well, I'm afraid!      
Barbecue Barbecue      
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